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Abstract Recently, there is an urgent need for new drugs due to the emergence of drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms and new infectious diseases. Keywords: actinobacteria, cave, karst, bioactive compounds, diversity, antimicrobial, anticancer, natural products. Introduction Caves are generally regarded as any natural underground chamber that is large enough for human entrance.

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Selective Isolation of Cave Actinobacteria In the past decade, there are many reports on the discovery of novel actinobacteria in cave habitats. Novel Actinobacterial Taxa Several novel actinobacterial taxa isolated from caves and cave related habitats during the period of 20 years from to were summarized in Table 1. Table 1 Novel actinobacterial taxa isolated from cave and related habitats between and Open in a separate window. Bioactive Compounds From Cave Actinobacteria Caves are extreme habitats with low nutrient, temperature and light intensity but have high humidity Schabereiter-Gurtner et al.

Table 2 Bioactive metabolites from cave actinobacteria. Bioactivity of Uncharacterized Compounds Several cave actinobacteria have been screened for their biological activity such as antibacterial, anticancer and antifungal. Conclusion and Future Perspectives Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are threatening human society at an alarming rate. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

References Abdelmohsen U. Diversity, abundance and natural products of marine sponge-associatd actinomycetes. Isolation, characterization, and antibacterial activity of hard-to-culture actinobacteria from cave moonmilk deposits. Antibiotics 7 Actinobacteria isolated from an underground lake moonmilk speleothem from the biggest conglomeratic karstic cave in Siberia as sources of novel biologically active compounds.

Taxonomy, physiology, and natural products of actinobacteria. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of a bacterial community in an oligotrophic cave environment.

Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research

Introduction to cave microbiology: a review for the non-specialist. Cave Karst Stud. Antimicrobial activities of culturable microorganisms actinomycetes and fungi isolated from Chaabe cave, Algeria. A novel approach to isolation of actinomycetes involving irradiation of soil samples with microwaves.

Microbiology 66 , — Lentzea guizhouensis sp. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek , — Cure from the cave: volcanic cave actinomycetes and their potential in drug discovery. Microlunatus cavernae sp. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek , 95— Saccharopolyspora cavernae sp. Response of secondary metabolism of hypogean actinobacterial genera to chemical and biological stimuli. Structure and stereochemical determination of hypogeamicins from a cave-derived actinomycete. Microbispora thailandensis sp. Lentzea covernae sp. Insights on the effects of heat pretreatment, pH, and calcium salts on isolation of rare Actinobacteria from karstic caves.

Actinomycetes: still a source of novel antibiotics.

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The cave microbiome as a source for drug discovery: reality or pipe dream? Actinomycetes in hypogean environments. Beutenbergia cavernae gen. Knoellia sinensis gen. Nocardioides cavernae sp. Cervimycin A-D: a polyketide glycoside complex from a cave bacterium can defeat vancomycin resistance. Amycolatopsis xuchangensis sp. Concepts and methods to access novel antibiotics from actinomycetes.

Actinobacteria Basics And Biotechnological Applications

Production of a new type of amidepsine with a sugar moiety by static fermentation of Humicola sp. Huanglongmycin A-C, cytotoxic polyketides biosynthesized by a putative type II polyketide synthase from Streptomyces sp. Isolation and cultivation methods of Actinobacteria in Actinobacteria - Basics and Biotechnological Applications , ed. Dhanasekaran D. Rijeka: InTech; , 39— Xiakemycin A, a novel pyranonaphthoquinone antibiotic, produced by the Streptomyces sp.


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CC from the soil of a karst cave. Hoyosella altamirensis gen. Nocardia altamirensis sp. Agromyces subbeticus sp. Screening of volcanic cave actinomycetes for antimicrobial activity against Paenibacillus larvae , a honey bee pathogen. Chiang Mai J. Streptomyces as a prominent resource of future anti-MRSA drugs.

Diversity of actinomycetes antagonistic to plant pathogenic fungi in cave and sea-mud soils of Korea.

Augustibacter spluncae sp. Rhodococcus antrifimi sp. Isolation of cave bacteria and substrate utilization at different temperature. Microbiological study of the dripping waters in Altamira cave Santillana del mar, Spain. Methods 36 , — Actinocorallia cavernae sp. Amycolatopsis jejuensis sp. Nocardia jejuensis sp. Jiangella alkaliphila sp. Humibacter antri sp. Spelaeicoccus albus gen. Antricoccus suffuscus gen.

Actinobacteria

Conexibacter stalactiti sp. Catellatospora koreensis sp.


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  • Saccharothrix violacea sp. Nocardia cavernae sp. Streptomyces canchipurensis sp. Tenggerimyces flavus sp. A phenotypic and genotypic analysis of the antimicrobial potential of cultivable Streptomyces isolated from cave moonmilk deposits. Streptomyces lunaelactis sp. Arthrobacter psychrophenolicus sp. Proposal of Sphaerimonospora cavernae gen. Sphaerimonospora mesophila comb. The genetics of bacterial spore germination. First record of the isolation, identification and biological activity of a new strain of Spirillospora albida from Thai cave soils.

    Actinomycetologica 23 , 1—7. Generic diversity of rare actinomycetes from Thai cave soils and their possible use as new bioactive compounds. Actinomycetologica 23 , 21— Nonomuraea monospora sp. Actinobacterial diversity in limestone deposit sites in Hundung, Manipur India and their antimicrobial activities. Microbiol 6 Rhodococcus canchipurensis sp. Streptomyces hundungensis sp. Micromonospora kangleipakensis sp.

    Streptomyces manipurensis sp. Actinomycetes from tropical limestone caves.